Marketing is a vital component of any business strategy, and understanding the various models and theories available can help companies effectively reach and engage their target audiences.
From the classic 4 P’s of marketing to more modern approaches like inbound marketing and growth hacking, there are a variety of tools and concepts that businesses can use to achieve their marketing goals. This article will provide a comprehensive list of 26 marketing models and theories, with a brief overview of each one and how it can be applied in practice. Whether you’re a small business owner, a marketing professional, or a student studying marketing, this guide will provide valuable insights into the different approaches you can take to promote your products or services.
Table of Contents
List of marketing models & theories
1. AIDA Model
The AIDA model is a classic marketing model that stands for Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action. It describes the four stages that a consumer goes through when considering a purchase.
- Attention: The first stage of the AIDA model is attention, where the consumer becomes aware of a product or service. Marketers use various techniques to grab the attention of potential customers, such as advertising, promotions, or public relations.
- Interest: Once the consumer’s attention is captured, the next step is to generate interest in the product or service. This is where marketers provide more information about the product and its benefits, in order to pique the consumer’s curiosity and encourage them to learn more.
- Desire: After building interest, the next step is to create a desire for the product or service. This is where marketers use persuasive techniques such as emotional appeals, testimonials, and social proof, to convince the consumer that the product or service will meet their needs and improve their life.
- Action: The final stage of the AIDA model is action, where the consumer takes the desired action, such as making a purchase or signing up for a service. Marketers use various techniques to encourage action, such as calls to action, limited-time offers, and risk-reversal guarantees.
The AIDA model is a basic framework that helps to understand the process of how consumers make purchase decisions. Marketing strategies and campaigns are often built around this model to ensure that all the aspects of AIDA are covered to increase the chances of getting the desired action from the customers.
2. PESTLE Analysis
PESTLE Analysis is a tool used by marketing professionals to analyze the macro-environment and identify the potential factors that could affect a business or industry. It stands for Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental. This model helps businesses identify the external factors that can influence their success, and helps them to develop strategies for dealing with them.
Political factors include government policy, taxes, and regulations. Economic factors include interest rates, inflation, and unemployment. Social factors include population growth, demographics, and cultural trends. Technological factors include the development of new technologies and their impact on the industry. Legal factors include laws and regulations that affect the industry. Environmental factors include the implications of climate change and other environmental issues. By understanding the PESTLE model, businesses can better prepare for potential changes and make decisions that will help them succeed in the long run.
3. SWOT Analysis
SWOT analysis is a strategic planning tool that helps businesses identify their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. It is a framework that is used to evaluate the internal and external factors that can impact a business’s performance.
- Strengths: This category includes the unique characteristics or capabilities that a business possesses that give it an advantage over its competitors. These can be anything from a strong brand, to a skilled workforce, or proprietary technology.
- Weaknesses: This category includes the areas where a business is lacking or underperforming. These can be things such as a lack of resources, outdated technology, or a weak brand.
- Opportunities: This category includes external factors that a business can take advantage of to improve its performance. These can be things like a growing market, new technologies, or changes in consumer behavior.
- Threats: This category includes external factors that can negatively impact a business’s performance. These can be things like economic downturns, new competitors, or changes in government regulations.
Once a SWOT analysis is completed, the information can be used to develop a strategic plan that leverages the business’s strengths, addresses its weaknesses, takes advantage of opportunities, and mitigates threats. The SWOT analysis is a valuable tool that can be used by businesses of all sizes and in all industries to gain a better understanding of their internal and external environment and make more informed strategic decisions.
4. 4Ps of Marketing
The 4Ps of marketing, also known as the “marketing mix,” is a framework that businesses use to develop and implement their marketing strategies. The 4Ps consist of:
- Product: This refers to the actual goods or services that a business offers. A company must consider what features, design, packaging and branding to use to appeal to its target market.
- Price: This refers to how much the product or service will cost the consumer. Pricing strategy must be aligned with the target market and the value of the product.
- Place: This refers to the distribution channels through which a product or service is made available to customers. A business must decide where and how its products will be sold, such as through brick-and-mortar stores, online, or distributors.
- Promotion: This refers to the methods a business uses to communicate with and persuade its target market to buy its products or services. This includes advertising, public relations, personal selling, and sales promotion.
The 4 Ps of marketing are interrelated and must be considered together in order to create a comprehensive marketing strategy. Businesses can use this framework to evaluate their current marketing strategies and make adjustments as needed to ensure that they are effectively reaching and engaging their target audiences.
5. 5Cs of Marketing
The 5Cs of marketing is a framework that businesses use to analyze the internal and external factors that can impact their performance. It is similar to the SWOT analysis but with an additional “Company” element. The 5Cs consist of:
- Company: This refers to the internal factors that can impact a business’s performance, such as its strengths and weaknesses, culture, and overall mission.
- Customers: This refers to the target market for a business’s products or services, including characteristics such as demographics, psychographics, and buying behaviors.
- Competitors: This refers to the other businesses that offer similar products or services to the same target market.
- Collaborators: This refers to the partners, suppliers, and other organizations that a business works with to deliver its products or services.
- Climate: This refers to the external factors that can impact a business’s performance, such as economic, political, technological, and social trends.
The 5Cs framework provides a comprehensive view of a business’s internal and external environment, and it helps businesses to identify opportunities and threats and develop strategies to capitalize on opportunities and mitigate risks. It also helps businesses to understand the overall industry and market environment that their business operates in.
6. Porters Five Forces Model
Porter’s Five Forces Model is a framework used to analyze the competitive forces in an industry. It is a tool that helps businesses understand the industry structure and the level of competition they are facing. The five forces are:
- Threat of new entrants: This refers to the likelihood that new competitors will enter the market and the barriers to entry that may prevent new companies from entering the industry.
- Threat of substitute products or services: This refers to the existence of alternative products or services that could potentially replace the ones offered by the company.
- Bargaining power of customers: This refers to the ability of customers to negotiate prices or terms with the company.
- Bargaining power of suppliers: This refers to the ability of suppliers to negotiate prices or terms with the company.
- Competitive rivalry: This refers to the intensity of competition among existing companies in the industry.
The Porter’s Five Forces Model helps businesses to identify the potential challenges and opportunities that exist within their industry. By understanding the level of competition in their market, businesses can develop strategies to compete more effectively and improve their chances of success. It is an important tool for businesses to use when evaluating their market position and for strategic decision-making.
7. BCG Growth-Share Matrix
The BCG Growth-Share Matrix is a framework used to analyze a company’s product portfolio and identify which products or business units should be given more resources and which should be phased out. It is a tool that helps businesses prioritize their products or business units based on their relative market growth and market share.
The matrix is divided into four quadrants:
- Stars: These are products or business units with high market growth and high market share. They typically require a large number of resources to maintain their position.
- Cash Cows: These are products or business units with low market growth but high market share. They generate a large amount of cash flow and can be used to finance other business units.
- Dogs: These are products or business units with low market growth and low market share. They are typically not worth investing in and may need to be phased out.
- Question Marks: These are products or business units with high market growth but low market share. They have the potential to become stars but require a significant investment to grow their market share.
The BCG Growth-Share Matrix is a useful tool for businesses to determine which products or business units should be given more resources and which should be phased out. It helps businesses to prioritize their products and make strategic decisions about resource allocation. The matrix can be used to identify the potential of a product or business unit and make strategic decisions to invest or divest in a product or business unit based on its growth potential and market share.
8. Ansoff Matrix
The Ansoff Matrix is a strategic planning tool that helps businesses determine their product and market growth strategy. It is a framework that helps businesses identify growth opportunities by analyzing their product offerings and market penetration. The matrix has four growth strategies:
- Market Penetration: This strategy involves increasing sales of existing products to existing customers. This can be achieved by increasing marketing efforts, improving distribution, or lowering prices.
- Market Development: This strategy involves identifying and developing new market segments for existing products. This can be achieved by entering new geographic markets or targeting new customer groups.
- Product Development: This strategy involves developing new products for existing market segments. This can be achieved by researching new product ideas or improving existing products.
- Diversification: This strategy involves developing new products for new market segments. This can be achieved by entering new industries or creating new product lines.
The Ansoff Matrix helps businesses to identify potential growth opportunities and assess the level of risk associated with each strategy. It is a useful tool for businesses to evaluate their current product and market position and to make strategic decisions about future growth. Companies can use the Ansoff matrix to determine where to focus their efforts to achieve growth, whether by expanding their existing products and market or diversifying into new products and markets.
9. Diffusion of Innovations
The Diffusion of Innovations model is a framework that describes how new products or ideas spread through a population. It was first developed by Everett Rogers in 1962 and is widely used to understand the adoption and spread of new products, technologies, or ideas.
The model consists of five key stages:
- Knowledge: The first stage is when people first become aware of the new product or idea.
- Persuasion: The second stage is when people start to form an opinion about the product or idea.
- Decision: The third stage is when people decide whether or not to adopt the product or idea.
- Implementation: The fourth stage is when people actually start using the product or idea.
- Confirmation: The final stage is when people evaluate their experience with the product or idea and decide whether to continue using it.
The Diffusion of Innovations model also recognizes that people adopt new products or ideas at different rates and that some people are more likely to adopt new products or ideas than others. These people are called “innovators,” “early adopters,” “early majority,” “late majority” and “laggards” and they play an important role in the adoption and spread of new products or ideas.
The Diffusion of Innovations model is widely used in various fields like marketing, sociology, and communication to understand how new products, services, or ideas spread among people, and how to create an effective marketing strategy to promote the adoption of new products or ideas. It helps businesses and organizations to identify key stakeholders, and target them with specific messaging and tactics to drive adoption and create a snowball effect that leads to a widespread adoption.
10. The Four Steps to the Epiphany
The Four Steps to the Epiphany is a framework for developing and marketing new products, services or startups. It was first introduced by Steve Blank in his book “The Four Steps to the Epiphany” and it’s widely used in the startup ecosystem and product development process.
The four steps are:
- Customer Discovery: This is the first step in the process, where the startup team goes out and talks to potential customers to understand their needs, pain points and validate assumptions about the problem they are trying to solve.
- Customer Validation: Once the team has a clear understanding of the customer’s needs, they can validate that there is a real market for their product or service by testing prototypes or minimum viable products with a small group of early adopters.
- Customer Creation: This step is focused on building and scaling the business by creating a product that meets the validated customer needs and building a sales and marketing strategy to reach more customers.
- Company Building: This step is focused on scaling the company, building a team, and creating the necessary infrastructure to support continued growth.
The Four Steps to the Epiphany is a customer-centric approach that emphasizes the importance of understanding and validating customer needs before building a product or service. It encourages startups and businesses to get out of the building and talk to potential customers, validate assumptions and iterate on their product or service until it meets the real needs of the customers. This approach helps startups and businesses to develop products and services that are more likely to be successful in the market and reduces the risk of failure.
11. The Knowledge Funnel
The Knowledge Funnel is a framework for understanding how customers move through the buying process and how to best communicate with them at each stage. It is a model that helps businesses to identify and understand the different stages of the customer’s journey and how to effectively market and communicate with them at each stage.
The stages of the Knowledge Funnel are:
- Awareness: This is the first stage, where the customer becomes aware of a problem or need they have.
- Consideration: The second stage is when the customer starts to research and consider different solutions to their problem or need.
- Evaluation: The third stage is when the customer evaluates the different options and compares them to determine which one best meets their needs.
- Purchase: The final stage is when the customer makes a purchase.
- Post Purchase: This is the stage after the purchase where the customer evaluates their satisfaction with the product or service, and may become a repeat customer or refer others.
The Knowledge Funnel helps businesses to understand the different types of information and messaging that customers need at each stage of the buying process. By understanding the customer’s journey and the type of information they are looking for, businesses can create more effective marketing campaigns that resonate with customers at each stage. This approach can help businesses to improve their lead generation and conversion rates and increase customer loyalty.
12. Buyer Decision Process
The Buyer Decision Process is a model that describes the stages that a consumer goes through when making a purchasing decision. It is a framework that businesses use to understand how consumers make purchasing decisions and how to effectively market and communicate with them.
The stages of the Buyer Decision Process are:
- Problem Recognition: This is the first stage, where the consumer becomes aware of a problem or need they have.
- Information Search: The second stage is when the consumer starts to research and gather information about different solutions to their problem or need.
- Evaluation of Alternatives: The third stage is when the consumer evaluates the different options and compares them to determine which one best meets their needs.
- Purchase Decision: The final stage is when the consumer makes a purchase.
- Post-Purchase Evaluation: This is the stage after the purchase where the consumer evaluates their satisfaction with the product or service, and may become a repeat customer or refer others.
The Buyer Decision Process helps businesses to understand the different types of information and messaging that consumers need at each stage of the buying process. By understanding the consumer’s journey and the type of information they are looking for, businesses can create more effective marketing campaigns that resonate with consumers at each stage. This approach can help businesses to improve their lead generation and conversion rates and increase customer loyalty. Businesses can also use this model to identify the pain points of the consumer and develop a strategy to address them and improve their buying decision process.
13. Positioning Map
Positioning Map is a marketing model that helps businesses to understand their position in the marketplace in relation to their competitors. It is a visual representation that plots a business’s products or services on a graph based on two key characteristics, such as price and quality, or features and benefits.
The positioning map is divided into four quadrants:
- Premium positioning: This quadrant represents products or services that are high in quality and high in price. These products are typically positioned for luxury markets or for customers who are willing to pay a premium for high quality.
- Performance positioning: This quadrant represents products or services that are high in quality and low in price. These products are positioned for customers who want high-quality products at an affordable price.
- Price positioning: This quadrant represents products or services that are low in quality and low in price. These products are positioned for price-sensitive customers or for those who are looking for a basic product at a low price.
- Popular positioning: This quadrant represents products or services that are low in quality and high in price. These products are typically positioned for fashion or trend-conscious customers who are willing to pay a premium for a product that is popular.
The positioning map helps businesses to understand their position in the market and to identify potential opportunities and threats. It helps businesses to identify their target market and to develop a positioning strategy that differentiates them from their competitors. By understanding their position in the market, businesses can develop a marketing strategy that leverages their strengths and addresses their weaknesses, to increase their chances of success.
14. Value Chain Analysis
Value Chain Analysis is a marketing model that helps businesses to understand the different activities and processes that are involved in creating and delivering a product or service to customers. It is a tool that helps businesses to identify areas where they can create value for customers and improve their competitive advantage.
The value chain is divided into two main categories: primary activities and support activities.
- Primary activities: These are the activities that are directly involved in creating and delivering a product or service to customers. They include inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and service.
- Support activities: These are the activities that support the primary activities and include: procurement, technology development, human resources management, and infrastructure.
By analyzing each activity and process in the value chain, businesses can identify areas where they can improve efficiency, reduce costs, and create value for customers. For example, if a business is able to reduce costs in its supply chain, it can pass those savings on to customers in the form of lower prices. Or, if a business improves its marketing and sales efforts, it can increase revenue and grow its customer base.
Value Chain Analysis can help businesses to understand the key drivers of their costs and revenue, and to identify opportunities for creating value and improving their competitive position. It can also help businesses to identify areas where they can outsource or collaborate with partners to improve efficiency, and to develop a strategic plan to improve performance in key areas of the value chain.
15. Customer Lifetime Value
Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) is a marketing model that helps businesses to understand the financial value of a customer to the company over their lifetime. It is a measure of the total value that a customer will bring to a business in terms of revenue, profits, and other benefits.
CLV is calculated by estimating the future revenue that a customer is likely to generate for a business, minus the costs associated with acquiring and servicing that customer. The formula for CLV typically includes the following variables:
- Average purchase value: The average amount of revenue that a customer generates per purchase.
- Purchase frequency: The number of times a customer makes a purchase in a given period.
- Customer retention rate: The percentage of customers who remain loyal to the business over time.
- Average customer lifespan: The length of time that a customer is likely to remain a customer.
By understanding the CLV of a customer, businesses can identify the most valuable customers and allocate resources accordingly. It can also help businesses to make better decisions about customer acquisition, retention, and marketing strategies. For example, if a business knows that a customer has a high CLV, it may be willing to invest more in acquiring and retaining that customer.
In addition, CLV also helps in identifying the most profitable customers and developing strategies to increase their loyalty and retention. It also helps in identifying the less profitable customers and developing strategies to increase their CLV or to segment them differently. CLV can be used in combination with other marketing models and metrics to make more informed business decisions and improve overall performance.
16. Push-Pull Strategy
The push-Pull strategy is a marketing model that describes two different methods of promoting a product or service to customers.
Push strategy is when a business “pushes” a product or service to customers by using intermediaries such as wholesalers or retailers to promote and sell the product to the end users. This method is used when the business wants to increase sales by making the product more widely available to customers.
Pull strategy is when a business “pulls” customers towards their product or service by using marketing techniques such as advertising, sales promotions, or public relations to create demand for the product. This method is used when the business wants to create a demand for their product by increasing awareness and interest among customers.
The choice of which strategy to use depends on the nature of the product, the target market, and the overall business objectives. For example, if a business is launching a new product, it may use a pull strategy to generate awareness and interest among customers, and then use a push strategy to make the product widely available to customers.
Push-Pull strategy can also be used together. For example, a business may use a push strategy to make their product widely available in stores, and a pull strategy to create demand for the product through advertising and promotions. The combination of these two strategies can help businesses to increase sales and market share by reaching a wider customer base while also creating a demand for their product.
17. The 5E’s of Pricing
The 5E’s of Pricing is a marketing model that helps businesses to understand and evaluate different pricing strategies. It is a framework that consists of five key elements that businesses should consider when setting prices for their products or services:
- Economy: The first element is the cost of the product or service, which includes the cost of materials, labor, and overhead.
- Emotion: The second element is the emotional value that a customer places on the product or service. This can include factors such as brand, design, and customer service.
- Experience: The third element is the customer experience, which includes the overall buying experience and the after-sales service.
- Expectation: The fourth element is the customer’s expectation of the product or service, which includes factors such as quality, features, and benefits.
- Environment: The final element is the external environment, which includes factors such as the economic climate, competition, and regulations.
By considering these five elements, businesses can develop a pricing strategy that takes into account the costs and value of the product or service, as well as the customer’s perception of the product or service. It helps businesses to balance the price of the product or service with the value that the customer perceives, and develop a pricing strategy that maximizes profits while also being competitive in the market.
The 5E’s of the Pricing model is a useful tool for businesses to evaluate and adapt their pricing strategies over time. It helps businesses to identify areas where they can reduce costs and increase value, and develop a pricing strategy that is responsive to changes in the market and customer preferences. Additionally, it also helps businesses to be aware of the external environment that can affect their pricing strategies, such as competition and regulations, and adapt accordingly.
By understanding how the five elements interact and how they are perceived by the customers, businesses can develop a pricing strategy that aligns with the company’s overall business objectives and customer needs. It helps businesses to communicate the value of their products or services effectively and to build a loyal customer base that is willing to pay the right price for the value they perceive.
18. Stakeholder Analysis
Stakeholder Analysis is a marketing model that helps businesses to identify, prioritize and understand the different groups of people who have an interest or stake in a product, service, or organization. It is a tool that helps businesses to identify who their stakeholders are, what their interests are, and how they may be affected by the business’s actions.
Stakeholder Analysis typically includes the following steps:
- Identify stakeholders: This step is to identify all the groups and individuals who have an interest or stake in the product, service, or organization.
- Assess the level of interest and influence: This step is to assess the level of interest and influence that each stakeholder group or individual has in the product, service, or organization.
- Prioritize stakeholders: This step is to prioritize the stakeholders based on their level of interest and influence and to identify which stakeholders are the most important to the business.
- Develop strategies: This step is to develop strategies to engage with the stakeholders and manage their expectations and concerns.
- Monitor and evaluate: This step is to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the strategies and to make adjustments as needed.
Stakeholder Analysis can help businesses to understand the different groups of people who are affected by their products, services or organization, and to develop strategies that align with their interests and concerns. It helps businesses to identify potential risks and opportunities and to build stronger relationships with key stakeholders, which can lead to increased customer satisfaction, improved reputation, and increased business success.
19. Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning
Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning (STP) is a marketing model that helps businesses to understand, segment, and target different groups of customers within a market, and to develop a positioning strategy that resonates with those customers.
Segmentation is the process of dividing a market into smaller groups of customers with similar needs and characteristics. This can be done by using demographic, geographic, psychographic, or behavioral criteria.
Targeting is the process of selecting one or more segments that the business will serve. This involves evaluating the attractiveness of each segment and determining which segments the business is best equipped to serve.
Positioning is the process of creating a unique image and value proposition for the business in the minds of the target customers. This involves developing a unique selling proposition (USP) and a value proposition that differentiates the business from its competitors.
The STP model helps businesses to better understand their target market and to develop a positioning strategy that resonates with those customers. By segmenting the market, businesses can identify specific groups of customers that are most likely to be interested in their products or services, and develop a targeted marketing strategy that speaks directly to those customers’ needs and wants. This approach can help businesses to increase their chances of success by focusing their resources on the most promising segments of the market and to create a strong, differentiated brand that resonates with the target customers.
20. Fishbone Diagram
A Fishbone Diagram, also known as an Ishikawa Diagram or Cause and Effect Diagram, is a tool used in marketing and other fields to analyze and identify the possible causes of a particular problem or effect. The diagram takes the shape of a fish skeleton, with the problem or effect being represented by the head of the fish, and the possible causes branching out from the head in the form of bones.
The bones are typically labeled with categories, such as “people,” “process,” “equipment,” “materials,” and “environment,” to help organize the causes. Once the possible causes have been identified and organized in the diagram, they can be further analyzed and prioritized in order to develop a solution or course of action.
21. Kano Model
The Kano Model is a customer satisfaction model used in marketing and product development to understand how different product or service attributes impact customer satisfaction. It was developed by Japanese researcher Noriaki Kano in the 1980s.
The model identifies three types of product or service attributes:
- Basic attributes: These are the minimum requirements that customers expect from a product or service. Failing to meet these expectations will result in customer dissatisfaction.
- Performance attributes: These are the factors that directly impact customer satisfaction. The more a product or service excels in these areas, the more satisfied customers will be.
- Excitement attributes: These are the unexpected or unique features that can greatly enhance customer satisfaction, but their absence will not necessarily lead to dissatisfaction.
The Kano Model also suggests that customer needs and wants are not constant and can change over time. Therefore, it is important for companies to continuously monitor and adapt to changes in customer expectations.
The Kano Model can be used in new product development, service design, and quality management to understand customer needs and develop products and services that meet and exceed customer expectations.
22. Completion Analysis
Completion Analysis is a marketing model used to evaluate the competitive landscape of a market. It involves identifying and analyzing the key competitors in a market, as well as the products or services they offer, in order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the competition.
The process of completion analysis typically involves several steps:
- Identify key competitors: This involves identifying the companies that are most likely to compete for the same customers or market share as your own business.
- Analyze the competitors’ products or services: This involves evaluating the features, benefits, and pricing of the competitors’ products or services in order to understand what they have to offer and how they compare to your own products or services.
- Evaluate the competitors’ strengths and weaknesses: This involves identifying the areas where the competitors excel or have advantages over your own business, as well as areas where they may have weaknesses or be vulnerable.
- Identify opportunities and threats: Based on the analysis, the marketer can identify opportunities for their own business to improve or areas where they may be at risk.
Completion analysis can help businesses understand the competitive landscape of their market, and make strategic decisions about how to position their products or services, pricing, and marketing efforts. It also can help to identify areas where the business can differentiate itself from the competition.
23. Perceptual Mapping
Perceptual Mapping is a marketing tool used to visually represent the perceptions of consumers about a company’s products or services, as well as those of its competitors. It is a way to graphically display the positioning of different products or services based on the perceptions and opinions of consumers.
Perceptual mapping typically involves two main steps:
- Data collection: This involves gathering data on the perceptions of consumers about the products or services being evaluated, as well as those of the competitors. This data can be collected through surveys, focus groups, or other research methods.
- Data analysis: This involves analyzing the data and creating a visual representation, or map, of the perceptions of consumers. The map is usually created by plotting the products or services being evaluated on a two-dimensional graph, with one dimension representing a product attribute (such as quality or price) and the other dimension representing another attribute (such as image or reputation).
Perceptual mapping can help businesses understand how their products or services are perceived by consumers and how they compare to those of their competitors. It can be used to identify areas where a business’s products or services are perceived to be strong or weak, and to make strategic decisions about how to position and market those products or services. It also can be used to identify opportunities to differentiate a business’s products or services from those of its competitors.
24. Brand Identity Prism
The Brand Identity Prism is a model used to describe and analyze the identity of a brand. It was developed by Jean-Noel Kapferer, a French marketing expert, in his book “The New Strategic Brand Management”.
The Brand Identity Prism has six components:
- Physique: It refers to the tangible elements of the brand such as its logo, packaging, and design.
- Personality: It refers to the human characteristics that consumers associate with the brand, such as friendliness, reliability, or innovation.
- Culture: It refers to the values, beliefs, and traditions that are associated with the brand, such as environmental protection or luxury.
- Relationship: It refers to the emotional bond that consumers have with the brand, such as trust, loyalty, or affection.
- Reflection: It refers to the self-image of the consumer when using or thinking about the brand.
- Self-Image: It refers to the image of the brand the company wants to project to the consumer.
The Brand Identity Prism can be used to analyze and understand a brand’s identity, and to develop a consistent and effective brand strategy. It can also be used to identify gaps between a brand’s desired self-image and its actual identity and to develop a plan to bridge that gap. By understanding the brand’s identity, the company can better communicate with its target audience, create a more consistent brand experience, and ultimately build stronger and more loyal relationships with its customers.
25. The 7 Cs of Communication
The 7 Cs of Communication is a marketing model to help businesses communicate effectively. It stands for:
- Clarity: The message should be clear and understandable for the target audience.
- Conciseness: Keep the message concise and to the point.
- Completeness: Make sure all relevant information is included in the message.
- Consideration: Take into account the target audience’s interests and needs.
- Concreteness: Use specific and concrete language that your audience can relate to.
- Courtesy: Be polite and respectful in your communication.
- Credibility: Make sure the message is believable and trustworthy.
26. The 4 P’s of Social Media Marketing
The 4 Ps of social media marketing are:
Plan: Develop a comprehensive social media strategy and plan that outlines your objectives, target audience(s), and the platforms you will use. Research the most effective platforms for your brand create a content plan with topics that will resonate with your audience and develop a timeline for when content will be published.
Produce: Create engaging content and assets that you can use for your social media campaigns. This could include images, videos, infographics, blog posts, and other forms of content.
Publish: Post your content on the relevant social media platforms and engage with your audience. Monitor your posts for comments and mentions, and respond in a timely manner. Promote: Use paid and organic tactics to reach new audiences, build your brand, and grow your following. This could include influencer marketing, sponsored content, and other types of paid campaigns. Additionally, you can take advantage of organic tactics such as hashtag campaigns, user-generated content, and referral marketing.
What is a marketing model?
A marketing model is a framework that helps marketers understand the relationships between different elements in the marketing environment (e.g., customers, products, competitors, etc.). It is used to identify and analyze opportunities and develop strategies for growth. It can include elements such as the 4Ps (Product, Price, Place, Promotion), or the 7Ps (Product, Price, Place, Promotion, People, Processes, Physical Evidence). It also can includean analysis of customer segments and target markets.
The marketing model also helps organizations understand how to position their products or services in the marketplace, how to reach potential customers, and how to assess the effectiveness of their marketing efforts. It can also be used to help develop pricing strategies and pricing models.
Furthermore, it helps to identify potential risks and opportunities associated with a product or service, and how to best forecast future demand. Finally, it can help identify the types of channels to use for marketing and how to best allocate resources. In short, the marketing model provides a comprehensive view of the marketing environment and can be used to create a successful marketing plan.
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- Direct mail.
A marketing strategy is a long-term plan for achieving a company's goals by understanding the needs of customers and creating a distinct and sustainable competitive advantage. It encompasses everything from determining who your customers are to deciding what channels you use to reach those customers.What are the 6 market models? ›
DETERMINING MARKET EMPHASIS IN RELATIONSHIP MARKETING: These six markets - customer, referral, supplier, recruitment, influence, and internal - do not necessarily each need their own formal written marketing plan, though some organisations will find it useful to do that.What are the basic marketing models? ›
- SWOT and TOWS analysis. SWOT and TOWS are both acronyms for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. ...
- 7Ps marketing mix. ...
- STP marketing model. ...
- Porter's five forces. ...
- AIDA. ...
- Ansoff matrix. ...
- Growth-share matrix. ...
Today, the STP marketing model (Segmentation, Targeting, Positioning) is a familiar strategic approach in modern marketing. It is one of the most commonly applied marketing models in practice, with marketing leaders crediting it for efficient, streamlined communications practice.What are the 4 types of Modelling? ›
- Runway models. A runway model works most commonly on the catwalk, which is the runway at fashion shows where designers showcase their work, such as a new clothing line. ...
- Fashion/editorial models. ...
- Commercial models. ...
- Photographers. ...
- Textile designers.
- Perfect competition.
- Monopolistic competition.
- Natural monopoly.
- Step 1 – Understand Your Market and Competition. ...
- Step 2 – Understand Your Customer. ...
- Step 3 – Market Niche Definition. ...
- Step 4 – Develop Your Marketing Message. ...
- Step 5 – Determine Your Marketing Medium(s) ...
- Step 6 – Set Sales and Marketing Goals. ...
- Step 7 – Develop Your Marketing Budget.
The building blocks of an effective marketing strategy include the 6 P's of marketing: product, price, place, promotion, people, and presentation. The effective integration of the 6 P's of marketing can serve as the foundation for an effective growth strategy.What are the 4 concepts of marketing? ›
The marketing concept rests on four pillars: target market, customer needs, integrated marketing and profitability.Which are the modern styles of marketing? ›
- (a)Digital marketing.
- (d)E-mails solicitation.
- (e)All of these.
- Purpose. ...
- Describe Product or Service and Market. ...
- Identify the Competition. ...
- Setting the Price. ...
- The Advertising and Promotion Mix. ...
- Develop a Budget. ...
- Location. ...
- Estimate Your Sales.
- Marketing information management. ...
- Promotion. ...
- Selling. ...
- Pricing. ...
- Product management. ...
- Financing. ...
This is everything you need to know about the 6 types of market segmentation: demographic, geographic, psychographic, behavioural, needs-based and transactional.What are the 8 major markets? ›
More Definitions of Major Markets
Major Markets means the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, France, Spain, Germany, Italy, and Japan.
- Fashion (Editorial) Model. These models are the faces you see in high fashion magazines such as Vogue and Elle. ...
- Runway Model. ...
- Swimsuit & Lingerie Model. ...
- Commercial Model. ...
- Fitness Model. ...
- Parts Model. ...
- Fit Model. ...
- Promotional Model.
What are the 10 types of modeling? Fashion (Editorial) Modeling, Fashion (Catalog) Modeling, Runway Modeling, Commercial Modeling, Mature Modeling, Promotional Modeling, Parts Modeling, Fit Modeling, Fitness Modeling, Glamour Modeling etc are some of the types of modeling.What are the best marketing models? ›
The three major marketing strategies that marketers and sales professionals use to influence their consumers are top-of-funnel (ToFu), middle-of-funnel (MoFu), and bottom-of-funnel (BoFu).
The Modern Marketing Model (M3) now creates a new framework for applying this thinking within organisations. The Modern Marketing Model is a unifying force which fuses digital and classic marketing into one future-facing framework. This informs marketing's remit, required competencies and organisational design.What is the most common marketing strategy? ›
The most common form of marketing is business to consumer (B2C) marketing.What is the most common business model? ›
Retailer. This is probably the most common business model around. Essentially, you have products – either your own or from manufacturers – and you sell them to consumers. This can be done in a physical store or as an e-commerce company.What are the 13 types of models? ›
- High fashion (Editorial) Models. Models who work in the fashion industry are often known as editorial models. ...
- Fashion (Catalogue) Models. ...
- Commercial Models. ...
- Mature Models. ...
- Promotional Models. ...
- Parts Models. ...
- Fit Models. ...
- Fitness Models.
A model can come in many shapes, sizes, and styles. It is important to emphasize that a model is not the real world but merely a human construct to help us better understand real world systems. In general all models have an information input, an information processor, and an output of expected results.What are the 4 types of models? ›
- Runway models. A runway model works most commonly on the catwalk, which is the runway at fashion shows where designers showcase their work, such as a new clothing line. ...
- Fashion/editorial models. ...
- Commercial models. ...
- Photographers. ...
- Textile designers.
What are the 4Ps of marketing? (Marketing mix explained) The four Ps are product, price, place, and promotion. They are an example of a “marketing mix,” or the combined tools and methodologies used by marketers to achieve their marketing objectives. The 4 Ps were first formally conceptualized in 1960 by E.